# Mathematical Functions in Python | Set 1 (Numeric Functions)

In python a number of mathematical operations can be performed with ease by importing a module named “math” which defines various functions which makes our tasks easier.

1. ceil() :- This function returns the smallest integral value greater than the number. If number is already integer, same number is returned.

2. floor() :- This function returns the greatest integral value smaller than the number. If number is already integer, same number is returned.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ` `# ceil() and floor() ` ` `  `# importing "math" for mathematical operations ` `import` `math ` ` `  `a ``=` `2.3` ` `  `# returning the ceil of 2.3 ` `print` `(``"The ceil of 2.3 is : "``, end``=``"") ` `print` `(math.ceil(a)) ` ` `  `# returning the floor of 2.3 ` `print` `(``"The floor of 2.3 is : "``, end``=``"") ` `print` `(math.floor(a)) `

Output:

```The ceil of 2.3 is : 3
The floor of 2.3 is : 2
```

3. fabs() :- This function returns the absolute value of the number.

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4. factorial() :- This function returns the factorial of the number. An error message is displayed if number is not integral.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ` `# fabs() and factorial() ` ` `  `# importing "math" for mathematical operations ` `import` `math ` ` `  `a ``=` `-``10` ` `  `b``=` `5` ` `  `# returning the absolute value. ` `print` `(``"The absolute value of -10 is : "``, end``=``"") ` `print` `(math.fabs(a)) ` ` `  `# returning the factorial of 5 ` `print` `(``"The factorial of 5 is : "``, end``=``"") ` `print` `(math.factorial(b)) `

Output:

```The absolute value of -10 is : 10.0
The factorial of 5 is : 120
```

5. copysign(a, b) :- This function returns the number with the value of ‘a’ but with the sign of ‘b’. The returned value is float type.

6. gcd() :- This function is used to compute the greatest common divisor of 2 numbers mentioned in its arguments. This function works in python 3.5 and above.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ` `# copysign() and gcd() ` ` `  `# importing "math" for mathematical operations ` `import` `math ` ` `  `a ``=` `-``10` `b ``=` `5.5` `c ``=` `15` `d ``=` `5` ` `  `# returning the copysigned value. ` `print` `(``"The copysigned value of -10 and 5.5 is : "``, end``=``"") ` `print` `(math.copysign(``5.5``, ``-``10``)) ` ` `  `# returning the gcd of 15 and 5 ` `print` `(``"The gcd of 5 and 15 is : "``, end``=``"") ` `print` `(math.gcd(``5``,``15``)) `

Output:

```The copysigned value of -10 and 5.5 is : -5.5
The gcd of 5 and 15 is : 5
```

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Python School Programming