Let’s see and understand closure through an example.
Explanation:Interesting thing to note here is from line number 9 to line number 12 . At line number 9 we are done with the execution of function foo() but we can access the variable b which is defined in function foo() through function inner() i.e in line number 10, 11, 12. and as desired it logs the value of b. This is closure in action that is inner function can have access to the outer function variables as well as all the global variables.
Output of the above code:
In order to see the variable and function bound within closure we can write as:
As we can see the variables within the closure in the scope section.
Definition of Closure:
In programming languages, closures (also lexical closures or function closures) are techniques for implementing lexically scoped name binding in languages with first-class functions. Operationally, a closure is a record storing a function[a] together with an environment: a mapping associating each free variable of the function (variables that are used locally, but defined in an enclosing scope) with the value or reference to which the name was bound when the closure was created.[b]
In other words, closure is created when a child function keep the environment of the parent scope even after the parent function has already executed
Now lets look at the another example.
Explanation: In the above example we used a parameter function rather than a default one. Note even when we are done with the execution of foo(5) we can access the outer_arg variable from the inner function. And on execution of inner function produce the summation of outer_arg and inner_arg as desired.
Now let’s see an example of closure within a loop.
In this example we would to store a anonymous function at every index of an array.
Explanation: Did you guess the right answer? In the above code we have created four closure which point to the variable i which is local variable to the function outer. Closure don’t remember the value of the variable it only points to the variable or stores the reference of the variable and hence, returns the current value. In the above code when we try to update the value of it gets reflected to all because the closure stores the reference.
Lets see an correct way to write the above code so as to get different values of i at different index.
Explanation: In the above code we are updating the argument of the function create_Closure with every call. Hence, we get different values of i at different index.
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This article is attributed to GeeksforGeeks.org