Like integers, C++11 introduced some basic inbuilt functions for handling simple mathematical computations of floating point numbers necessary for day to day programming as well as competitive programming. This article discusses some of the functions introduced.

**1. fmod()** : This function is used to return the** remainder(modulus) of 2 floating point numbers** mentioned in its arguments. The quotient computed is **truncated**.

**2. remainder()** : This function is also used to return the** remainder(modulus) of 2 floating point numbers** mentioned in its arguments.The quotient computed is **rounded**.

**3. remquo()** : This function returns the remainder and also stored remainder in variable reference passed as argument. **This function takes 3 arguments, numerator, denominator and reference of variable where quotient has to be stored.**

`// C++ code to demonstrate working of ` `// fmod(), remainder() and remquo() ` `#include <iostream> ` `#include <cmath> ` `using` `namespace` `std; ` ` ` `int` `main() { ` ` ` ` ` `double` `a, b, c, d, f; ` ` ` `int` `g; ` ` ` ` ` `// initializing values ` ` ` `a = 9.6; ` ` ` `b = 3.5; ` ` ` ` ` `// using fmod() to compute the remainder ` ` ` `// computes 2 as quotient (truncated) ` ` ` `// returns 2.6 as remainder ` ` ` `d = ` `fmod` `(a,b); ` ` ` ` ` `// using remainder() to compute the remainder ` ` ` `// computes 3 as quotient (rounded) ` ` ` `// returns -0.9 as remainder ` ` ` `c = remainder(a,b); ` ` ` ` ` `// using remquo() to return quotient and remainder ` ` ` `// quotient stored in g ` ` ` `f = remquo(a,b,&g); ` ` ` ` ` `cout << ` `"The remainder computed using fmod() is : "` `<<d; ` ` ` `cout << endl; ` ` ` ` ` `cout << ` `"The remainder computed using remainder() is : "` `<<c; ` ` ` `cout << endl; ` ` ` ` ` `cout << ` `"The remainder part of "` `<< a <<` `"/"` `<< b << ` `" is : "` `<< f; ` ` ` `cout << endl; ` ` ` `cout << ` `"The quotient part of "` `<< a <<` `"/"` `<< b << ` `" is : "` `<< g ; ` ` ` `cout << endl; ` ` ` ` ` `} ` |

Output:

The remainder computed using fmod() is : 2.6 The remainder computed using remainder() is : -0.9 The remainder part of 9.6/3.5 is : -0.9 The quotient part of 9.6/3.5 is : 3

**4. copysign()** : This function returns a number with the **magnitude to 1st argument and sign of 2nd argument**.

**5. nextafter()** : This function computes the** next representable value of 1st argument in the direction of 2nd argument**.

`// C++ code to demonstrate working of ` `// nextafter() and copysign() ` `#include <iostream> ` `#include <cmath> ` `using` `namespace` `std; ` ` ` `int` `main() ` `{ ` ` ` `double` `a, b, c; ` ` ` ` ` `// initializing values ` ` ` `a = 9.6; ` ` ` `b = -3.5; ` ` ` `c = 0.0; ` ` ` ` ` `// using copysign() ` ` ` `cout << ` `"The value returned after copysigning is : "` `; ` ` ` `cout << copysign(a,b); ` ` ` ` ` `cout << endl; ` ` ` ` ` `// using nextafter() to compute next approximated value ` ` ` `cout << ` `"The next value approximated is : "` `; ` ` ` `cout << nextafter(c,b); ` `} ` |

Output:

The value returned after copysigning is : -9.6 The next value approximated is : -4.94066e-324

**6. fmin()** : Returns the **smallest** of two arguments.

**7. fmax()** : Returns the **largest** of two arguments.

**8. fdim()** : Returns the **positive difference** of the numbers passed as arguments.

**9. fma()** : This function takes **3 arguments** and returns **multiply-add** “**x*y+z**” value after computing.

`// C++ code to demonstrate working of ` `// fmin(), fmax(), fdim(), fma() ` `#include <iostream> ` `#include <cmath> ` `using` `namespace` `std; ` ` ` `int` `main() ` `{ ` ` ` `double` `a, b, c; ` ` ` ` ` `// initializing values ` ` ` `a = 2.5; ` ` ` `b = 2.0; ` ` ` `c = 2.5; ` ` ` ` ` `// using fmax() to compute maximum of two numbers ` ` ` `cout << ` `"The largest of 2 numbers is : "` `; ` ` ` `cout << fmax(a,b); ` ` ` ` ` `cout << endl; ` ` ` ` ` `// using fmin() to compute smallest of two numbers ` ` ` `cout << ` `"The smallest of 2 numbers is : "` `; ` ` ` `cout << fmin(a,b); ` ` ` ` ` `cout << endl; ` ` ` ` ` `// using fdim() to compute positive difference of two numbers ` ` ` `cout << ` `"The positive difference of 2 numbers is : "` `; ` ` ` `cout << fdim(a,b); ` ` ` ` ` `cout << endl; ` ` ` ` ` `// using fma() to compute multiply-add ` ` ` `cout << ` `"The multiply-add of 3 numbers is : "` `; ` ` ` `cout << fma(a,b,c); ` `} ` |

Output:

The largest of 2 numbers is : 2.5 The smallest of 2 numbers is : 2 The positive difference of 2 numbers is : 0.5 The multiply-add of 3 numbers is : 7.5

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