# Find the Missing Number

You are given a list of n-1 integers and these integers are in the range of 1 to n. There are no duplicates in list. One of the integers is missing in the list. Write an efficient code to find the missing integer.

```Example :
I/P    [1, 2, 4, ,6, 3, 7, 8]
O/P    5
```

METHOD 1(Use sum formula)

Algorithm:

```1. Get the sum of numbers
total = n*(n+1)/2
2  Subtract all the numbers from sum and
you will get the missing number.
```

## C++

 `// C++ program of above approach ` `#include ` `using` `namespace` `std; ` ` `  `class` `gfg ` `{ ` `     `  `/* getMissingNo takes array and ` `size of array as arguments*/` `public` `: ``int` `getMissingNo (``int` `a[], ``int` `n) ` `{ ` `    ``int` `i, total; ` `    ``total = (n + 1) * (n + 2) / 2;  ` `    ``for` `( i = 0; i< n; i++) ` `        ``total -= a[i]; ` `    ``return` `total; ` `} ` `}; ` ` `  `/*Driver code */` `int` `main() ` `{ ` `    ``gfg g; ` `    ``int` `a[] = {1, 2, 4, 5, 6}; ` `    ``int` `miss = g.getMissingNo(a, 5); ` `    ``cout << miss; ` `} ` ` `  `// This code is contributed by SoM15242 `

## C

 `#include ` ` `  `/* getMissingNo takes array and size of array as arguments*/` `int` `getMissingNo (``int` `a[], ``int` `n) ` `{ ` `    ``int` `i, total; ` `    ``total  = (n+1)*(n+2)/2;    ` `    ``for` `( i = 0; i< n; i++) ` `       ``total -= a[i]; ` `    ``return` `total; ` `} ` ` `  `/*program to test above function */` `int` `main() ` `{ ` `    ``int` `a[] = {1,2,4,5,6}; ` `    ``int` `miss = getMissingNo(a,5); ` `    ``printf``(``"%d"``, miss); ` `    ``getchar``(); ` `} `

## Java

 `// Java program to find missing Number ` ` `  `class` `Main ` `{ ` `    ``// Function to ind missing number ` `    ``static` `int` `getMissingNo (``int` `a[], ``int` `n) ` `    ``{ ` `        ``int` `i, total; ` `        ``total  = (n+``1``)*(n+``2``)/``2``;    ` `        ``for` `( i = ``0``; i< n; i++) ` `           ``total -= a[i]; ` `        ``return` `total; ` `    ``} ` `      `  `    ``/* program to test above function */` `    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String args[]) ` `    ``{ ` `        ``int` `a[] = {``1``,``2``,``4``,``5``,``6``}; ` `        ``int` `miss = getMissingNo(a,``5``); ` `        ``System.out.println(miss);    ` `    ``} ` `} `

## Python

 `# getMissingNo takes list as argument ` `def` `getMissingNo(A): ` `    ``n ``=` `len``(A) ` `    ``total ``=` `(n``+``1``)``*``(n``+``2``)``/``2` `    ``sum_of_A ``=` `sum``(A) ` `    ``return` `total ``-` `sum_of_A ` ` `  `# Driver program to test above function ` `A ``=` `[``1``, ``2``, ``4``, ``5``, ``6``] ` `miss ``=` `getMissingNo(A) ` `print``(miss) ` `# This code is contributed by Pratik Chhajer `

/div>

## C#

 `// C# program to find missing Number ` `using` `System; ` ` `  `class` `GFG ` `{ ` `    ``// Function to ind missing number ` `    ``static` `int` `getMissingNo (``int` `[]a, ``int` `n) ` `    ``{ ` `        ``int` `total = (n + 1) * (n + 2) / 2;  ` `         `  `        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i< n; i++) ` `        ``total -= a[i]; ` `         `  `        ``return` `total; ` `    ``} ` `     `  `    ``/* program to test above function */` `    ``public` `static` `void` `Main() ` `    ``{ ` `        ``int` `[]a = {1, 2, 4, 5, 6}; ` `        ``int` `miss = getMissingNo(a, 5); ` `        ``Console.Write(miss);  ` `    ``} ` ` `  `} ` ` `  `// This code is contributed by Sam007_ `

## PHP

 ` `

Output :

```3
```

Time Complexity : O(n)

There can be overflow if n is large. In order to avoid Integer Overflow, we can pick one number from known numbers and subtract one number from given numbers. This way we wont have Integer Overflow ever. Thanks to Sahil Rally for suggesting this improvement.

METHOD 2(Use XOR)

```  1) XOR all the array elements, let the result of XOR be X1.
2) XOR all numbers from 1 to n, let XOR be X2.
3) XOR of X1 and X2 gives the missing number.
```

## C++

 `// C++ program to find missing Number ` `// using xor ` `#include ` `using` `namespace` `std; ` ` `  `class` `gfg ` `{ ` `     `  `/* getMissingNo takes array and  ` `size of array as arguments*/` `public` `:  ` `int` `getMissingNo(``int` `a[], ``int` `n) ` `{ ` `    ``int` `i; ` `    ``int` `x1 = a[0]; ``/* For xor of all the elements in array */` `    ``int` `x2 = 1; ``/* For xor of all the elements from 1 to n+1 */` `     `  `    ``for` `(i = 1; i < n; i++) ` `        ``x1 = x1^a[i]; ` `             `  `    ``for` `( i = 2; i <= n + 1; i++) ` `        ``x2 = x2^i;    ` `     `  `    ``return` `(x1^x2); ` `} ` `}; ` ` `  `/* Driver code */` `int` `main() ` `{ ` `    ``gfg g; ` `    ``int` `a[] = {1, 2, 4, 5, 6}; ` `    ``int` `miss = g.getMissingNo(a, 5); ` `    ``cout << miss; ` `    ``getchar``(); ` `} ` ` `  `// This code is contributed by SoM15242 `

## C

 `#include ` ` `  `/* getMissingNo takes array and size of array as arguments*/` `int` `getMissingNo(``int` `a[], ``int` `n) ` `{ ` `    ``int` `i; ` `    ``int` `x1 = a[0]; ``/* For xor of all the elements in array */` `    ``int` `x2 = 1; ``/* For xor of all the elements from 1 to n+1 */` `     `  `    ``for` `(i = 1; i< n; i++) ` `        ``x1 = x1^a[i]; ` `            `  `    ``for` `( i = 2; i <= n+1; i++) ` `        ``x2 = x2^i;          ` `    `  `    ``return` `(x1^x2); ` `} ` ` `  `/*program to test above function */` `int` `main() ` `{ ` `    ``int` `a[] = {1, 2, 4, 5, 6}; ` `    ``int` `miss = getMissingNo(a, 5); ` `    ``printf``(``"%d"``, miss); ` `    ``getchar``(); ` `} `

## Java

 `// Java program to find missing Number ` `// using xor ` `class` `Main ` `{ ` `    ``// Function to find missing number ` `    ``static` `int` `getMissingNo (``int` `a[], ``int` `n) ` `    ``{ ` `        ``int` `x1 = a[``0``];  ` `        ``int` `x2 = ``1``;  ` `         `  `        ``/* For xor of all the elements  ` `           ``in array */` `        ``for` `(``int` `i = ``1``; i < n; i++) ` `            ``x1 = x1 ^ a[i]; ` `                 `  `        ``/* For xor of all the elements  ` `           ``from 1 to n+1 */`          `        ``for` `(``int` `i = ``2``; i <= n+``1``; i++) ` `            ``x2 = x2 ^ i;          ` `         `  `        ``return` `(x1 ^ x2); ` `    ``} ` `      `  `    ``/* program to test above function */` `    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String args[]) ` `    ``{ ` `        ``int` `a[] = {``1``,``2``,``4``,``5``,``6``}; ` `        ``int` `miss = getMissingNo(a,``5``); ` `        ``System.out.println(miss); ` `    ``} ` `} `

## Python3

 `# Python3 program to find ` `# the mising Number ` `# getMissingNo takes list as argument  ` ` `  `def` `getMissingNo(a,n): ` `    ``x1 ``=` `a[``0``] ` `    ``x2 ``=` `1` `     `  `    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``1``,n): ` `        ``x1 ``=` `x1 ^ a[i] ` `         `  `    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``2``,n``+``2``): ` `        ``x2 ``=` `x2^i ` `     `  `    ``return` `x1 ^ x2 ` ` `  ` `  `# Driver program to test above function ` `if` `__name__``=``=``'__main__'``: ` ` `  `    ``a ``=` `[``1``, ``2``, ``4``, ``5``, ``6``] ` `    ``n``=``len``(a) ` `    ``miss ``=` `getMissingNo(a,n)  ` `    ``print``(miss) ` `     `  `# This code is contributed by Yatin Gupta  `

## C#

 `// C# program to find missing Number ` `// using xor ` `using` `System; ` ` `  `class` `GFG ` `{ ` `    ``// Function to find missing number ` `    ``static` `int` `getMissingNo (``int` `[]a, ``int` `n) ` `    ``{ ` `        ``int` `x1 = a[0];  ` `        ``int` `x2 = 1;  ` `         `  `        ``/* For xor of all the elements  ` `        ``in array */` `        ``for` `(``int` `i = 1; i < n; i++) ` `            ``x1 = x1 ^ a[i]; ` `                 `  `        ``/* For xor of all the elements  ` `        ``from 1 to n+1 */`     `        ``for` `(``int` `i = 2; i <= n + 1; i++) ` `            ``x2 = x2 ^ i;          ` `         `  `        ``return` `(x1 ^ x2); ` `    ``} ` `     `  `    ``/* driver program to test above function */` `    ``public` `static` `void` `Main() ` `    ``{ ` `        ``int` `[]a = {1, 2, 4, 5, 6}; ` `        ``int` `miss = getMissingNo(a, 5); ` `        ``Console.Write(miss); ` `    ``} ` ` `  `} ` ` `  `// This code is contributed by Sam007_ `

## PHP

 ` `

Output :

```3
```

Time Complexity : O(n)