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Top three elements in binary tree

We have a simple binary tree and we have to print the top 3 largest elements present in the binary tree.

Examples:

Input : 
          1
         /  
        2    3
       /    / 
      4  5   4  5
Output :Three largest elements are 5 4 3

Approach We can simply take three variables first, second, third to store the first largest, second largest, third largest respectively and perform preorder traversal and each time we will update the elements accordingly.
This approach will take O(n) time only.



Algorithm-

1- Take 3 variables first, second, third
2- Perform a preorder traversal
    if (root==NULL)
         return
    if root's data is larger then first
         update third with second
         second with first
         first with root's data
    else if root's data is larger then 
         second and not equal to first
            update third with second
            second with root's data
    else if root's data is larger then 
         third and not equal to first & 
         second
            update third with root's data
3- call preorder for root->left
4- call preorder for root->right

C++

// CPP program to find largest three elements in
// a binary tree.
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
struct Node {
  int data;
  struct Node *left;
  struct Node *right;
};
  
/* Helper function that allocates a new Node with the
   given data and NULL left and right pointers. */
struct Node *newNode(int data) {
  struct Node *node = new Node;
  node->data = data;
  node->left = NULL;
  node->right = NULL;
  return (node);
}
  
// function to find three largest element
void threelargest(Node *root, int &first, int &second, 
                                          int &third) {
  if (root == NULL)
    return;
  
  // if data is greater than first large number
  // update the top three list
  if (root->data > first) {
    third = second;
    second = first;
    first = root->data;
  }
  
  // if data is greater than second large number
  // and not equal to first update the bottom 
  // two list
  else if (root->data > second && root->data != first) {
    third = second;
    second = root->data;
  }
  
  // if data is greater than third large number
  // and not equal to first & second update the 
  // third highest list
  else if (root->data > third && 
           root->data != first && 
           root->data != second)
    third = root->data;
  
  threelargest(root->left, first, second, third);
  threelargest(root->right, first, second, third);
}
  
// driver function
int main() {
  struct Node *root = newNode(1);
  root->left = newNode(2);
  root->right = newNode(3);
  root->left->left = newNode(4);
  root->left->right = newNode(5);
  root->right->left = newNode(4);
  root->right->right = newNode(5);
  
  int first = 0, second = 0, third = 0;
  threelargest(root, first, second, third);
  cout << "three largest elements are " 
       << first << " " << second << " "
       << third;
  return 0;
}

Python3

# Python3 program to find largest three
# elements in a binary tree.

# Helper function that allocates a new
# Node with the given data and None
# left and right pointers.
class newNode:
def __init__(self, data):
self.data = data
self.left = None
self.right = None

# function to find three largest element
def threelargest(root, first, second, third):
if (root == None):
return



# if data is greater than first large
# number update the top three list
if (root.data > first[0]):
third[0] = second[0]
second[0] = first[0]
first[0] = root.data

# if data is greater than second large
# number and not equal to first update
# the bottom two list
elif (root.data > second[0] and
root.data != first[0]):
third[0] = second[0]
second[0] = root.data

# if data is greater than third large
# number and not equal to first & second
# update the third highest list
elif (root.data > third[0] and
root.data != first[0] and
root.data != second[0]):
third[0] = root.data

threelargest(root.left, first,
second, third)
threelargest(root.right, first,
second, third)

# Driver Code
if __name__ == ‘__main__’:

root = newNode(1)
root.left = newNode(2)
root.right = newNode(3)
root.left.left = newNode(4)
root.left.right = newNode(5)
root.right.left = newNode(4)
root.right.right = newNode(5)

first = [0]
second = [0]
third = [0]
threelargest(root, first, second, third)
print(“three largest elements are”,
first[0], second[0], third[0])

# This code is contributed by PranchalK

Output:

three largest elements are 5 4 3


This article is attributed to GeeksforGeeks.org

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