Electronic and Digital systems may use a variety of different number systems, (e.g. Decimal, Hexadecimal, Octal, Binary).

A number N in base or radix b can be written as:

(N)_{b} = d_{n-1} d_{n-2} — — — — d_{1} d_{0} . d_{-1} d_{-2} — — — — d_{-m}

In the above, d_{n-1} to d_{0} is integer part, then follows a radix point, and then d_{-1} to d_{-m} is fractional part.

d_{n-1} = Most significant bit (MSB)

d_{-m} = Least significant bit (LSB)

**How to convert a number from one base to another?**

Follow the example illustrations:

## 1. Decimal to Binary

(10.25)_{10}

**Note: **Keep multiplying the fractional part with 2 until decimal part 0.00 is obtained.

(0.25)_{10} = (0.01)_{2}

**Answer:** (10.25)_{10} = (1010.01)_{2}

## 2. Binary to Decimal

(1010.01)_{2}

1×2^{3} + 0x2^{2} + 1×2^{1}+ 0x2^{0} + 0x2 ^{-1} + 1×2 ^{-2} = 8+0+2+0+0+0.25 = 10.25

(1010.01)_{2} = (10.25)_{10}

## 3. Decimal to Octal

(10.25)_{10}

(10)_{10} = (12)_{8}

Fractional part:

0.25 x 8 = 2.00

**Note:** Keep multiplying the fractional part with 8 until decimal part .00 is obtained.

(.25)_{10} = (.2)_{8}

**Answer:** (10.25)_{10} = (12.2)_{8}

## 4. Octal to Decimal

(12.2)_{8}

1 x 8^{1} + 2 x 8^{0} +2 x 8^{-1} = 8+2+0.25 = 10.25

(12.2)_{8} = (10.25)_{10}

## 5. Hexadecimal and Binary

To convert from Hexadecimal to Binary, write the 4-bit binary equivalent of hexadecimal.

(3A)_{16} = (00111010)_{2}

To convert from Binary to Hexadecimal, group the bits in groups of 4 and write the hex for the 4-bit binary. Add 0's to adjust the groups.

1111011011

(001111011011 )_{2} = (3DB)_{16}

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