Internet is the network of computers which connects the whole world together.But, how it actually work at the very low level?
First when we type a url like www.google.com, the browser converts it into a file containing:
- GET /HTTP/1.1 (where GET means we are requesting some data from server and HTTP refers to protocol that we are using, 1.1 refers to version of HTTP request)
- Host: www.google.com
- And some other information
Now this file is converted to binary codes by the browser and send to the wires if we are connected through Ethernet and if we are using WiFi, it first converts to radio signal which is decoded by router and in the low level. It is converted to binary and sent to servers.
This information or simply binary codes goto the destination and respond is received by the sender only because of IP address.
One router send the information to another and this keep on going until the binary codes reaches the destination.
Now the server receives the binary code and decode it and send the response in following manner:
- HTTP/1.1 200 ok (where 200 ok is the status)
- Body of page
Now this is converted back to binary by the server and sent to the IP address that is requesting it. Once this codes are received by the client, the browser again decode the information in following way:
- First it checks the status
- It starts reading the document from html tag and constructs Tree like structure.
- The html tree is then converted to corresponding binary code and rendered on the screen.
- In the end we see the website front-end.
Below is the tree structure of html document:
The following diagram show the whole process:
To understand the basic web terminology refer: The Internet and the Web