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Program for Page Replacement Algorithms | Set 2 (FIFO)

Prerequisite : Page Replacement Algorithms

In operating systems that use paging for memory management, page replacement algorithm are needed to decide which page needed to be replaced when new page comes in. Whenever a new page is referred and not present in memory, page fault occurs and Operating System replaces one of the existing pages with newly needed page. Different page replacement algorithms suggest different ways to decide which page to replace. The target for all algorithms is to reduce number of page faults.

First In First Out (FIFO) page replacement algorithm –
This is the simplest page replacement algorithm. In this algorithm, operating system keeps track of all pages in the memory in a queue, oldest page is in the front of the queue. When a page needs to be replaced page in the front of the queue is selected for removal.

Example -1. Consider page reference string 1, 3, 0, 3, 5, 6 and 3 page slots.

Initially all slots are empty, so when 1, 3, 0 came they are allocated to the empty slots —> 3 Page Faults.
when 3 comes, it is already in memory so —> 0 Page Faults.
Then 5 comes, it is not available in memory so it replaces the oldest page slot i.e 1. —>1 Page Fault.
Finally 6 comes, it is also not available in memory so it replaces the oldest page slot i.e 3 —>1 Page Fault.

So total page faults = 5.

Example -2. Consider the following reference string: 0, 2, 1, 6, 4, 0, 1, 0, 3, 1, 2, 1.

Using FIFO page replacement algorithm –

So, total number of page faults = 9.

Given memory capacity (as number of pages it can hold) and a string representing pages to be referred, write a function to find number of page faults.



Implementation – Let capacity be the number of pages that memory can hold. Let set be the current set of pages in memory.

1- Start traversing the pages.
 i) If set holds less pages than capacity.
   a) Insert page into the set one by one until 
      the size  of set reaches capacity or all
      page requests are processed.
   b) Simultaneously maintain the pages in the
      queue to perform FIFO.
   c) Increment page fault
 ii) Else 
   If current page is present in set, do nothing.
   Else 
     a) Remove the first page from the queue
        as it was the first to be entered in
        the memory
     b) Replace the first page in the queue with 
        the current page in the string.
     c) Store current page in the queue.
     d) Increment page faults.

2. Return page faults.

C++

// C++ implementation of FIFO page replacement
// in Operating Systems.
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
// Function to find page faults using FIFO
int pageFaults(int pages[], int n, int capacity)
{
    // To represent set of current pages. We use
    // an unordered_set so that we quickly check
    // if a page is present in set or not
    unordered_set<int> s;
  
    // To store the pages in FIFO manner
    queue<int> indexes;
  
    // Start from initial page
    int page_faults = 0;
    for (int i=0; i<n; i++)
    {
        // Check if the set can hold more pages
        if (s.size() < capacity)
        {
            // Insert it into set if not present
            // already which represents page fault
            if (s.find(pages[i])==s.end())
            {
                s.insert(pages[i]);
  
                // increment page fault
                page_faults++;
  
                // Push the current page into the queue
                indexes.push(pages[i]);
            }
        }
  
        // If the set is full then need to perform FIFO
        // i.e. remove the first page of the queue from
        // set and queue both and insert the current page
        else
        {
            // Check if current page is not already
            // present in the set
            if (s.find(pages[i]) == s.end())
            {
                //Pop the first page from the queue
                int val = indexes.front();
  
                indexes.pop();
  
                // Remove the indexes page
                s.erase(val);
  
                // insert the current page
                s.insert(pages[i]);
  
                // push the current page into
                // the queue
                indexes.push(pages[i]);
  
                // Increment page faults
                page_faults++;
            }
        }
    }
  
    return page_faults;
}
  
// Driver code
int main()
{
    int pages[] = {7, 0, 1, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4,
                   2, 3, 0, 3, 2};
    int n = sizeof(pages)/sizeof(pages[0]);
    int capacity = 4;
    cout << pageFaults(pages, n, capacity);
    return 0;
}

Java

// Java implementation of FIFO page replacement
// in Operating Systems.
  
import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.Queue;
  
  
class Test
{
    // Method to find page faults using FIFO
    static int pageFaults(int pages[], int n, int capacity)
    {
        // To represent set of current pages. We use
        // an unordered_set so that we quickly check
        // if a page is present in set or not
        HashSet<Integer> s = new HashSet<>(capacity);
       
        // To store the pages in FIFO manner
        Queue<Integer> indexes = new LinkedList<>() ;
       
        // Start from initial page
        int page_faults = 0;
        for (int i=0; i<n; i++)
        {
            // Check if the set can hold more pages
            if (s.size() < capacity)
            {
                // Insert it into set if not present
                // already which represents page fault
                if (!s.contains(pages[i]))
                {
                    s.add(pages[i]);
       
                    // increment page fault
                    page_faults++;
       
                    // Push the current page into the queue
                    indexes.add(pages[i]);
                }
            }
       
            // If the set is full then need to perform FIFO
            // i.e. remove the first page of the queue from
            // set and queue both and insert the current page
            else
            {
                // Check if current page is not already
                // present in the set
                if (!s.contains(pages[i]))
                {
                    //Pop the first page from the queue
                    int val = indexes.peek();
       
                    indexes.poll();
       
                    // Remove the indexes page
                    s.remove(val);
       
                    // insert the current page
                    s.add(pages[i]);
       
                    // push the current page into
                    // the queue
                    indexes.add(pages[i]);
       
                    // Increment page faults
                    page_faults++;
                }
            }
        }
       
        return page_faults;
    }
      
    // Driver method
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        int pages[] = {7, 0, 1, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4,
                        2, 3, 0, 3, 2};
   
        int capacity = 4;
        System.out.println(pageFaults(pages, pages.length, capacity));
    }
}
// This code is contributed by Gaurav Miglani

Python3

# Python3 implementation of FIFO page
# replacement in Operating Systems.
from queue import Queue 
  
# Function to find page faults using FIFO 
def pageFaults(pages, n, capacity):
      
    # To represent set of current pages. 
    # We use an unordered_set so that we
    # quickly check if a page is present
    # in set or not 
    s = set() 
  
    # To store the pages in FIFO manner 
    indexes = Queue() 
  
    # Start from initial page 
    page_faults = 0
    for i in range(n):
          
        # Check if the set can hold 
        # more pages 
        if (len(s) < capacity):
              
            # Insert it into set if not present 
            # already which represents page fault 
            if (pages[i] not in s):
                s.add(pages[i]) 
  
                # increment page fault 
                page_faults += 1
  
                # Push the current page into
                # the queue 
                indexes.put(pages[i])
  
        # If the set is full then need to perform FIFO 
        # i.e. remove the first page of the queue from 
        # set and queue both and insert the current page 
        else:
              
            # Check if current page is not 
            # already present in the set 
            if (pages[i] not in s):
                  
                # Pop the first page from the queue 
                val = indexes.queue[0
  
                indexes.get() 
  
                # Remove the indexes page 
                s.remove(val) 
  
                # insert the current page 
                s.add(pages[i]) 
  
                # push the current page into 
                # the queue 
                indexes.put(pages[i]) 
  
                # Increment page faults 
                page_faults += 1
  
    return page_faults
  
# Driver code 
if __name__ == '__main__':
    pages = [7, 0, 1, 2, 0, 3, 0
                4, 2, 3, 0, 3, 2
    n = len(pages) 
    capacity = 4
    print(pageFaults(pages, n, capacity))
  
# This code is contributed by PranchalK

C#

// C# implementation of FIFO page replacement 
// in Operating Systems. 
using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic; 
  
class Test 
    // Method to find page faults using FIFO 
    static int pageFaults(int []pages, int n, int capacity) 
    
        // To represent set of current pages. We use 
        // an unordered_set so that we quickly check 
        // if a page is present in set or not 
        HashSet<int> s = new HashSet<int>(capacity); 
      
        // To store the pages in FIFO manner 
        Queue indexes = new Queue() ; 
      
        // Start from initial page 
        int page_faults = 0; 
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) 
        
            // Check if the set can hold more pages 
            if (s.Count < capacity) 
            
                // Insert it into set if not present 
                // already which represents page fault 
                if (!s.Contains(pages[i])) 
                
                    s.Add(pages[i]); 
      
                    // increment page fault 
                    page_faults++; 
      
                    // Push the current page into the queue 
                    indexes.Enqueue(pages[i]); 
                
            
      
            // If the set is full then need to perform FIFO 
            // i.e. Remove the first page of the queue from 
            // set and queue both and insert the current page 
            else
            
                // Check if current page is not already 
                // present in the set 
                if (!s.Contains(pages[i])) 
                
                    //Pop the first page from the queue 
                    int val = (int)indexes.Peek(); 
      
                    indexes.Dequeue(); 
      
                    // Remove the indexes page 
                    s.Remove(val); 
      
                    // insert the current page 
                    s.Add(pages[i]); 
      
                    // push the current page into 
                    // the queue 
                    indexes.Enqueue(pages[i]); 
      
                    // Increment page faults 
                    page_faults++; 
                
            
        
      
        return page_faults; 
    
      
    // Driver method 
    public static void Main(String []args) 
    
        int []pages = {7, 0, 1, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4, 
                        2, 3, 0, 3, 2}; 
  
        int capacity = 4; 
        Console.Write(pageFaults(pages, pages.Length, capacity)); 
    
  
// This code is contributed by Arnab Kundu

Output:

7

Note – We can also find the number of page hits. Just have to maintain a separate count. If the current page is already in the memory then that must be count as Page-hit.

Belady’s anomaly –
Belady’s anomaly proves that it is possible to have more page faults when increasing the number of page frames while using the First in First Out (FIFO) page replacement algorithm. For example, if we consider reference string 3, 2, 1, 0, 3, 2, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 4 and 3 slots, we get 9 total page faults, but if we increase slots to 4, we get 10 page faults.

Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.



This article is attributed to GeeksforGeeks.org

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