Match a pattern and String without using regular expressions

Given a string, find out if string follows a given pattern or not without using any regular expressions.


string - GraphTreesGraph
pattern - aba

string - GraphGraphGraph
pattern - aaa

string - GeeksforGeeks
pattern - GfG

string - GeeksforGeeks
pattern - GG
No solution exists

We can solve this problem with the help of Backtracking. For each character in the pattern, if the character is not seen before, we consider all possible sub-strings and recurse to see if it leads to the solution or not. We maintain a map that stores sub-string mapped to a pattern character. If pattern character is seen before, we use the same sub-string present in the map. If we found a solution, for each distinct character in the pattern, we print string mapped to it using our map.

Below is C++ implementation of above idea –

// C++ program to find out if string follows
// a given pattern or not
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
/*  Function to find out if string follows a given
    pattern or not
    str - given string
    n - length of given string
    i - current index in input string
    pat - given pattern
    m - length of given pattern
    j - current index in given pattern
    map - stores mapping between pattern and string */
bool patternMatchUtil(string str, int n, int i,
                    string pat, int m, int j,
                    unordered_map<char, string>& map)
    // If both string and pattern reach their end
    if (i == n && j == m)
        return true;
    // If either string or pattern reach their end
    if (i == n || j == m)
        return false;
    // read next character from the pattern
    char ch = pat[j];
    // if character is seen before
    if (map.find(ch)!= map.end())
        string s = map[ch];
        int len = s.size();
        // consider next len characters of str
        string subStr = str.substr(i, len);
        // if next len characters of string str
        // don't match with s, return false
        if (subStr.compare(s))
            return false;
        // if it matches, recurse for remaining characters
        return patternMatchUtil(str, n, i + len, pat, m,
                                            j + 1, map);
    // If character is seen for first time, try out all
    // remaining characters in the string
    for (int len = 1; len <= n - i; len++)
        // consider substring that starts at position i
        // and spans len characters and add it to map
        map[ch] = str.substr(i, len);
        // see if it leads to the solution
        if (patternMatchUtil(str, n, i + len, pat, m,
                                          j + 1, map))
            return true;
        // if not, remove ch from the map
    return false;
// A wrapper over patternMatchUtil()function
bool patternMatch(string str, string pat, int n, int m)
    if (n < m)
    return false;
    // create an empty hashmap
    unordered_map<char, string> map;
    // store result in a boolean variable res
    bool res = patternMatchUtil(str, n, 0, pat, m, 0, map);
    // if solution exists, print the mappings
    for (auto it = map.begin(); res && it != map.end(); it++)
        cout << it->first << "->" << it->second << endl;
    // return result
    return res;
// Driver code
int main()
    string str = "GeeksforGeeks", pat = "GfG";
    int n = str.size(), m = pat.size();
    if (!patternMatch(str, pat, n, m))
        cout << "No Solution exists";
    return 0;



Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.

This article is attributed to GeeksforGeeks.org

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